One (a place value unit, 10 of which may be composed to make a ten)

Part (e.g., “What is the unknown part? 3 + ___ = 8”)

Partners to 10 (e.g., 10 and 0, 9 and 1, 8 and 2, 7 and 3, 6 and 4, 5 and 5)

Ten plus facts (e.g., 10 + 3 = 13, 10 + 5 = 15, 10 + 8 = 18)

Total (e.g., for 3 + 4 = 7 or 7 – 4 = 3, seven is the whole, or
total)

Number bond (see image to the right)

Say Ten counting (see chart below)

Make a Ten

Students need to make a ten when adding and subtracting. This prepares them for adding and subtracting bigger numbers. When adding 42 + 9 they need to make a ten by adding one to the 9 ones. They get this one from the 2 ones in 42.

Research shows that using your fingers in math is key to better math performance. " In fact, the quality of the 6-year-old’s finger representation was a better predictor of future performance on math tests than their scores on tests of cognitive processing." Click on the button to read the article.